Upon his return to Italy he entered literary life and wrote his first novel in an artists' colony on Monte Cavo near Rome. In Pirandello married the daughter of a business associate of his father's, and the couple moved to Rome, where their three children were born. After some years Pirandello accepted a position as professor of Italian at Rome's R.
Istituto di Magistero Femminile and in obtained the chair of Italian language and stylistics at the same institution.
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Through a flooding of his father's mine in , Pirandello lost his patrimony as well as his wife's substantial dowry, which had been invested in his father's business. Upon learning of the disaster, his wife suffered a shock and developed a paranoid condition which progressively worsened. She remained with the family, but as the scenes of jealousy became more trying, she was admitted to a nursing home in and remained there until her death in There is no doubt that Pirandello's peculiar approach to the problems of essence and appearance was conditioned by this firsthand experience: he once said that a madwoman had led his hand for 15 long years.
Throughout this time Pirandello continued his writing, scarcely noted by the rank and file of Italy's critics, and only the clamorous success of Sei personaggi in cerca d'autore ; Six Characters in Search of an Author brought him national recognition and international fame. In , at a critical time for the regime following the Matteotti murder in June, Pirandello joined the Fascist party, and in September of the same year he founded, with state support, the Teatro d'Arte di Roma, of which he became director. From this time dates his friendship with Marta Abba, the leading actress of the troupe and his second muse.
'PIRANDELLO' (BANCO SAN PAOLO) p/cards. Dal Negro. Artist: LIDIA DE VETTORI
Mainly staging plays of Pirandello, the troupe went on several foreign tours, to England, France, and Germany , to Vienna, Prague, and Budapest , and to South America This venture proved too costly in the end, and the Teatro d'Arte was dissolved in Beginning with this year Pirandello took up frequent and extensive residences abroad, especially in Paris and Berlin. In Pirandello was elected a member of the newly founded Accademia d'Italia, and in he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. He was a tall man with a pointed beard and piercing eyes. Pirandello died on Dec.
Pirandello's ashes were transferred to his birthplace, where they now rest in a huge rock under a solitary pine tree, a setting he had imagined for his birth in his unfinished Informazioni sul mio involontario soggiorno sulla terra. Analytical in nature and for the most part lacking in action, Pirandello's plays are dialectical disquisitions on essence and appearance, illusion and reality, the problem of personal identity, the impossibility of objective truth and of communication.
His dramatic production some 43 plays in all is thus an illustration of his relativistic and pessimistic tenets and philosophical beliefs. As he conceived of his probe into these aspects mainly as a process of unmasking, he published his collected plays under the title Maschere nude Naked Masks.
Giustino Roncella nato Boggiòlo
Sei personaggi in cerca d'autore , the first play of a trilogy, is an inquiry into the esthetic problems involved in translating the "ideal reality" of the six characters into the casual reality of the stage, represented by the actors and its transitory contingencies of time. The action is continually interrupted by comments paralleling it, the characters themselves are drawn as types, and the stage directions even recommend that they wear masks.
Their story is only incidental to the more important aspect of the play, the clash and exchange between the two worlds of art and life. In the second play, Ciascuno a suo modo ; Each in His Own Way , this analytical preoccupation comes out even more clearly in that the dialectical approach is carried to the point where action and ensuing reflection on it are already sharply defined in the outer form of the play: after each of the two acts there follow intermezzi corali, in which the preceding action is discussed.
In the last play of the trilogy, Questa sera si recita a soggetto ; Tonight We Improvise , we see the consequences of this approach; it no longer makes any pretense at taking seriously the play within the play: the director, Dr. Hinkfuss, has his actors improvise on a scenario, a short story by Pirandello. The great bulk of Pirandello's later production, however, is concerned with the concept of the mask in its different aspects: for Pirandello, the fiction, the mask alone, either self-imposed or, as in most cases, forced on by society, makes life possible.
If this mask is ever torn off, willingly or by force, man is no longer able to live, to function in a society based upon the law of common fictions: either he returns to wearing his mask, to "living" the life of the dead, or he becomes "crazy, " "insane" as far as society is concerned. By refusing to wear the mask, Pirandello's characters in the eyes of this world choose death. Thus they may die the symbolical death of insanity, or they may choose to take their own lives in earnest and throw away with their lives the mask and imposed form, as does Ersilia Drei of Vestire gli ignudi ; Naked.
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They even may, willingly, choose a mask as a token of their freedom, as does the protagonist of Enrico IV ; Henry IV , one of Pirandello's strongest plays. He chooses to wear the mask of insanity in full consciousness, a decision he has sealed with a murder; and, ironically, society—the world of the masks—cannot hold him responsible because he has taken refuge behind a mask and beaten society at its own game.
Other plays center more directly on Pirandello's relativistic convictions concerning reality and illusion. Of the trilogy on "modern myths" which Pirandello had envisaged, he completed only the first two plays.
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La nuova colonia portrays the rather pessimistic chances he gives society for a decent communal life, whereas Lazzaro , his "religious myth, " voices his pantheistic religious convictions. The last of these plays, the "myth of art, " I giganti della montagna ; The Mountain Giants , remained unfinished. Special offers and product promotions Buy this product and stream 90 days of Amazon Music Unlimited for free. E-mail after purchase.
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